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Taylor, Jonathan. 2008. Determinants of Development Success in the Native Nations of the United States. Cambridge and Tucson: Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development, Native Nations Institute for Leadership, Management, and Policy.
The poverty of indigenous North Americans, especially those living on reservations, has concerned Indian and federal policymakers for more than a century. After the treaty making phase and the establishment of the reservation system, federal policies to address Native poverty vacillated between cultural assimilation, forced urbanization, and asset privatization, on the one hand, and governmental reorganization, natural resource exploitation, and welfare assistance, on the other. None of this experimentation brought American Indians to parity with the rest of the United States. American Indians and Alaska Natives have been the poorest category of Americans for decades.