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Cornell, Stephen, and Joseph P. Kalt. 2010. "American Indian Self-Determination: The Political Economy of a Policy that Works." In Faculty Research Working Paper Series, no. RWP10-043. Cambridge: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.
The Indigenous people of the United States are commonly denoted as belonging to three primary groups: Native Hawaiians, American Indians, and Alaskan Natives. The latter two groups are the focus of this study. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) are generally designated as “Native Americans.” An estimated 4.7 million people in the United States – or about 1.5 percent of the U.S. population – self-identify under official Census categories as American Indian or Alaska Native. Of these, 3.3 million people identify as being of single-race Native American ethnicity. Approximately 1.2 million Native Americans reside on Indian reservations (known collectively as “Indian Country”) or in Alaska Native Villages. This leaves approximately 2.1 million of those who identify themselves as single-race American Indian or Alaska Native living outside Indian Country and Alaska Native villages.